The majority of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is caused by risk factors that can be controlled…

Interviewing with Professor Mahmomoud Hassanein, here is what he said, “ Since CardioAlex has been fixed , much success has been happening to the conference organization. Also, each year the board develops the weakness points in order to gain success for CardioAlex.”

I would like to give a hint about cardiolaex 2017, it’s the biggest medical conference in Egypt attended by more than 5000 physicians; as well as physicians from all over the world and world class medical professionals that is coming together to share experiences and updates. This year I will talk about heart failure in various topics we will discuss chronic heart failure and we will have our guest speaker from Germany and the upcoming president of the European heart failure association. we also will talk about the latest scientific updates and guidelines in heart failure that is set by the European society of cardiology (ESC)… we are all here to get new and updated insights, learn and share our knowledge for a greater cause.

As our Vision:
“ A vision plan is discussed each 5 years and the development is clearly obvious with the audience  witness”

Are there any ways to tell if someone is going to have heart trouble?

The majority of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is caused by risk factors that can be controlled,

treated or modified, such as high blood pressure, cholesterol, overweight/obesity, tobacco use,

lack of physical activity and diabetes. In terms of attributable deaths, the leading CVD risk factor is raised

blood pressure (to which 13 per cent of global deaths is attributed), followed by tobacco use (9 per

cent), raised blood glucose (6 per cent), physical inactivity (6 per cent) and overweight and obesity (5

per cent).


Hypertension (high blood pressure)

Blood pressure is measured as two numbers, written one over the other and recorded in

millimetres of mercury – for example, 120/78 mm Hg. The top (higher) number is the systolic

pressure – the pressure in the arteries as the heart is contracting – and the bottom (lower)

number is the diastolic pressure – the pressure in the arteries when the heart is relaxed between

beats. High blood pressure is defined as a repeatedly elevated systolic pressure of 140 or higher

OR a diastolic pressure of 90 or higher.

  • Globally, nearly one billion people have high blood pressure (hypertension); of these, two thirds

are in developing countries.

  • Hypertension is one of the most important causes of premature death worldwide and the

problem is growing; in 2025, an estimated 1.56 billion adults will be living with hypertension.

  • Hypertension is the leading cause of CVD worldwide..
  • High blood pressure is called the “silent killer” because it often has no warning signs or

symptoms, and many people do not realize they have it; that is why it’s important to get blood

pressure checked regularly.

Tobacco use
  • Smoking is estimated to cause nearly 10 per cent of all CVD.
  • The risk of developing CVD is higher in female smokers, young men, and heavy smokers.
  • There are currently about 1 billion smokers in the world today.
  • Within two years of quitting, the risk of coronary heart disease is substantially reduced, and

within 15 years the risk of CVD returns to that of a non-smoker

Raised blood glucose (diabetes)

  • Diabetes is defined as having a fasting plasma glucose value of 7.0 mmol/l (126 mg/dl) or


  • In 2008, diabetes was responsible for 1.3 million deaths globally.
  • In 2008, the global prevalence of diabetes was estimated to be 10 per cent.
  • CVD accounts for about 60 per cent of all mortality in people with diabetes.
  • The risk of cardiovascular events is from two to three times higher in people with type 1 or

type 2 diabetes and the risk is disproportionately higher in women.

  • In some age groups, people with diabetes have a two-fold increase in the risk of stroke.
  • Patients with diabetes also have a poorer prognosis after cardiovascular events compared to

people without diabetes.

  • Lack of early detection and care for diabetes results in severe complications, including heart

attacks, strokes, renal failure, amputations and blindness.

  • Primary care access to measurement of blood glucose and cardiovascular risk assessment

as well as essential medicines including insulin can improve health outcomes of people with


Physical inactivity

  • Insufficient physical activity can be defined as less than five times 30 minutes of moderate

activity per week, or less than three times 20 minutes of vigorous activity per week, or


  • Insufficient physical activity is the fourth leading risk factor for mortality.
  • People who are insufficiently physically active have a 20 to 30 per cent increased risk of all cause

mortality compared to those who engage in at least 30 minutes of moderate intensity

physical activity most days of the week.

  • The prevalence of insufficient physical activity is higher in high-income countries compared

to low-income countries due to increased automation of work and use of vehicles for

transport in high-income countries.

Unhealthy diet

  • High dietary intakes of saturated fat, trans-fats and salt, and low intake of fruits, vegetables

and fish are linked to cardiovascular risk.

  • Approximately 16 million (1.0 per cent) DALYs and 1.7 million (2.8 per cent) of deaths

worldwide are attributable to low fruit and vegetable consumption.

  • The amount of dietary salt consumed is an important determinant of blood pressure levels

and overall cardiovascular risk and the WHO recommends a population salt intake of less

than 5 grams/person/day to help the prevention of CVD.

  • Frequent consumption of high-energy foods, such as processed foods that are high in fats

and sugars, promotes obesity compared to low-energy foods.

  • High consumption of saturated fats and trans-fatty acids is linked to heart disease;

elimination of trans-fat and replacement of saturated with polyunsaturated vegetable oils

lowers coronary heart disease risk.

  • Adequate consumption of fruit and vegetables reduces the risk of CVD.
  • A healthy diet can contribute to a healthy body weight, a desirable lipid profile and a

desirable blood pressure.

  • It is estimated that decreasing dietary salt intake from the current global levels of 9–12

grams/day to the recommended level of 5 grams/day would have a major impact on blood

pressure and CVD


  • Raised blood cholesterol increases the risk of heart disease and stroke.
  • Globally, one third of ischaemic heart disease is attributable to high cholesterol.
  • Overall, raised cholesterol is estimated to cause 2.6 million deaths (4.5 per cent of total) and

29.7 million DALYS, or 2 per cent of total DALYS globally.

  • Lowering raised blood cholesterol reduces the risk of heart disease.
  • The prevalence of raised total cholesterol noticeably increases according to the income level

of the country. In low-income countries, around 25 per cent of adults have raised total

cholesterol, while in high-income countries, over 50 per cent of adults have raised total


Overweight and obesity

  • Obesity is strongly related to major cardiovascular risk factors such as raised blood pressure,

glucose intolerance, type 2 diabetes and dyslipidaemia.

  • Worldwide, at least 2.8 million people die each year as a result of being overweight or obese,

and an estimated 35.8 million (2.3 per cent) of global DALYs are caused by overweight or


  • In 2008, 9.8 per cent of men and 13.8 per cent of women were obese (with a BMI greater

than or equal to 30 kg/m2), compared to 4.8 per cent for men and 7.9 per cent for women in


  • To achieve optimal health, the median BMI for adult populations should be in the range of

21–23 kg/m2, while the goal for individuals should be to maintain a BMI in the range 18.5–

24.9 kg/m2

  • The prevalence of raised BMI increases with income level of countries, up to upper-middle income

levels. The prevalence of overweight in high-income and upper-middle-income countries was more than

double that of low- and lower-middle-income countries.


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