We were so keen on interviewing such a veteran doctor as Dr. Tarek El Zawawy. Off course the interview was so fruitful and he didn’t scrimp an information. We talked about several topics, we will leave you with the questions and his beneficial answers.
Diet & Hypertension
No one should consume more than 2,300 mg of sodium per day
Even one high fat meal can have a negative effect on CV risk factors. 2 hours after the high fat meal, blood pressure elevates.A healthy eating plan can both reduce the risk of developing high blood pressure and lower a blood pressure that is already too high
DASH stands for Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension. The diet is simple:
The reductions in blood pressure that occurred were observed after 2 weeks and were sustained for more than 6 weeks, demonstrating how certain dietary patterns can favorably affect blood pressure.
Can a high pulse lead to heart diseases?
Heart Rate and CV risk
Heart rate is known to play an important regulatory role in endothelial function and vascular tone.Heart rate regulates the release of nitric oxide and other vasoactive compounds from the endothelium,Data from large epidemiological studies suggest that elevated heart rate is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in patients with hypertension and in those with established cardiovascular disease.
Studies have shown that a high resting heart rate is a strong predictor of total and cardiovascular mortality in healthy populations as well as in patients with suspected or proven coronary artery disease. With a global estimation of 30% to 50% excess mortality for every 20 bpm increase at rest
As part of the Beautiful study, patients with heart rates of
70 bpm or more had increased risk for cardiovascular death (34%, p = 0.0041), hospital admission for heart failure (53%, p < 0.0001), for myocardial infarction (46%, p = 0.0066) and for coronary revascularization (38%, p = 0.037).
Heart rate reduction per se is consistent with prevention of cardiac ischemia and improvement in cardiovascular prognosis.
Hypertension and comorbidity
Hypertension has been identified as a major risk factor for CVD morbidity and mortality and many patients with hypertension have comorbid cardiovascular conditions
Hypertension accounts for an estimated 54 percent of all strokes and 47 percent of all ischemic heart disease events globally
According to data from the Framingham Heart Study, less than 20% of hypertension occurs in the absence of 1 or more risk factors
2017 Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults:
- hypertension and known stable CVD or ≥10% 10-year ASCVD risk, a BP target of <130/80 mm Hg is recommended.
- CKD: BP goal should be <130/80 mm Hg. In those with stage 3 or higher CKD or stage 1 or 2 CKD with albuminuria (>300 mg/day), treatment with an ACE inhibitor is reasonable to slow progression of kidney disease
- In adults with acute intracranial hemorrhage and SBP >220 mm Hg, it may be reasonable to use continuous intravenous drug infusion with close BP monitoring to lower SBP. Immediate lowering of SBP to <140 mm Hg from 150-220 mm Hg is not of benefit to reduce death, and may cause harm. In acute ischemic stroke, BP should be lowered slowly to <185/110 mm Hg prior to thrombolytic therapy and maintained to <180/105 mm Hg for at least the first 24 hours after initiating drug therapy.
- Diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension: Antihypertensive drug treatment should be initiated at a BP ≥130/80 mm Hg with a treatment goal of <130/80 mm Hg.