Bronchial Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases worldwide with an estimated 300 million affected individuals.
Asthma is a major cause of school and work absence with high Health care expenditure.
Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory condition of airways characterized by recurrent respiratory symptoms such as: wheeze, shortness of breath, chest tightness, cough that vary over time and in intensity, together with variable expiratory reversible airflow obstruction.
Many environmental factors can trigger Asthma as different types of Allergens, Respiratory infections, Exercise and hyperventilation, Weather changes, food, additives, drugs and pets.
Smoking represent the most powerful trigger for asthma in children.
Diagnosis of bronchial asthma will depend on Medical history including history of atopy in the family, physical exam, chest x ray, allergy testing and recently pulmonary functions had been added to confirm diagnosis and to ensure follow up.
Parents should understand nature of the disease and the triggers and preventive measures to protect their children.
The doctor should provide parents with an Asthma action plan which include the steps to be followed at home in case of severe asthmatic attack even before going to emergency room.
Great progress had been added to asthma medications to have control of asthma, minimize acute attacks, and allowing child to have normal life and activity.
These medications are mainly inhaled Corticosteroids as controller medications with minimal side effects.
Stepwise approach in management will be according to level of symptom control either well controlled, partly controlled or uncontrolled asthmatics.
Preventive measures are extremely important especially avoidance of smoking.
Finally, Treatment of asthmatic child is really a challenge and need cooperation between the care givers and the doctor.